We start with a covered bazaar because I find them so interesting. Trading dome Tagi Zargaron (means Dome of the Jeweler) was built in the 16th century and was still used for market stalls when we were there and I presume still is now.
The Arq (or Ark) Fortress is part of the mud brick walls of ancient Bukhara. It was probably built around the 7th century AD although there may have been structures there previously. It is the oldest building in the city and was a residence of Bukhara khans.
The 12th-century Kalon Minaret is one of the most impressive monuments in Bukhara. Next to it is the 16th-century Kalon Mosque, built on the site of an earlier mosque.
Mir-i-Arab Medressa's namesake, Mir-i-Arab, was a 16th-century Naqshbandi sheikh from Yemen. Mir-i-Arab Medressa was a working Islamic seminary from the 16th century until it was closed in 1920. It was reponed by Stalin in 1944 in an effort to gain Muslim favor for his war effort.
Chashma Aiub Mausoleum was built in the 12th century. Tradition has it that the Prophet Ayub (Job) here struck his staff into the ground, creating a well (chashmeh), to whose water believers were attracted for its healing powers.
The so-called summer palace was built in the early 20th century, combining characteristics of Russian and Central Asian architecture.
Bolo-Khauz mosque is a unique example of 18th century Central Asian architecture, virtually the only structure from that period to have survived. The portal and exterior walls of Bolo-Khauz are decorated with a wooden ornamentation.
Labi-Hauz, a plaza build around a huge pool in 1620, is a peaceful and interesting spot, shaded by ancient mulberry trees. The Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah (1622-23) was initially erected as a caravanserai. At the inauguration ceremony Imam Quli Khan unexpectedly proclaimed the supposed caravanserai is to be a madrasah. Today one can drink tea or dine beside the pool.
The Samanid Mausoleum was built in the 9th (10th) century (between 892 and 943) as the resting-place of Ismail Samani - the founder of the Samanid dynasty, the last Persian dynasty to rule in Central Asia, which held the city in the 9th and 10th centuries.
The Nadir Divan-Begi Madrasah (1622-23) was initially erected as a caravanserai. At the inauguration ceremony Imam Quli Khan unexpectedly proclaimed the supposed caravanserai is to be a madrasah. So Nadir Divan-Begi was obliged to rearrange the caravanserai by adding on to the front the loggias, the portal and angular towers. He also constructed an additional storey with cells.
A caravanserai was a roadside inn where travelers could safely rest and recover from the day's journey. Caravanserais supported the flow of commerce, information, and people across the network of trade routes covering Asia, North Africa, and South-Eastern Europe.
Wikipedia reference for Bukhara and Brittanica entry for Bukhara